The basic architecture of Intelligent Eco Networking is mainly composed of Network functions configurable device, Multi-layer controller system, Content-Centric network protocol, Trust management and Cloud/Fog/Haze computing group. For IoT, the IEN architecture combines with content center, blockchain and AI. The details of its infrastructures are as follows:
A. Network function configurable device
As shown in the figure, the network function configurable device can be the IEN-Hub, the IEN-Router, or IEN-Core Router, depending on its performance. The multi-layer control system can realize different network transmission functions by configuring control processing module (CPM) in the device to achieve different network transmission functions. The traffic collection module (TCM) can periodically collect network environment information (eg. route table, cache queue length) and traffic information (eg, packet size and receiving frequency). This information will be uploaded to the control panel to assist in formulating transmission strategy. The network function configurable device implements a physical abstraction layer that contains multiple customizable physical interfaces (eg, 5G, wifi, Bluetooth). It makes software applications do not need to consider the underlying heterogeneous environment, and simultaneously access to devices with different performances and different communication methods.
It should be noted that the IEN-Hub is loosely managed by the controller because of its too low computing capability to burden heavy tasks, which only serves as a unified access point for various heterogeneous terminals but can be stimulated for sharing valuable content to earn IEN coins, acting like ’’small miners”. And the IEN-Router and IEN-Core Router can not only perform complex network forwarding, but also provide computing and storage for the Cloud/Fog/Haze hierarchical framework, which will be explicated in section E.
B. Multi-layer control system
It intelligently implements transmissions control through configurable device by combining AI Big Data with operator-customized service policies.
As shown in the figure, we will divide the control system into the IEN domain control panel and the IEN Global control panel. The IEN Global control panel sets regulating the overall network and developing different service forwarding strategies for different services. By learning network flow information with cloud computing, it classifies different data streams into different services and provides corresponding service processing methods. The IEN control panel is responsible for the data forwarding path in the local area network. By learning the network environment information with fog computing, it can plan the forwarding path that is most suitable for the data flow.
C. Content-Centric network protocol
The IEN network protocol uses the content name instead of the address as the data packet header of the network protocol stack. By matching the content name in the data packet, the network can find corresponding data which is needed by users. Each packet content name also carries a mandatory data signature, which ensures the network security. The Content-Centric protocol has a network layer caching function. Transmitted content will be cached in each switch that it traverses, to response that requests for the same content come, switches could search their cache to find the corresponding content and achieve a faster response.
D. Trust management
To ensure the security and stability of the network infrastructure, IEN builds a trust management model to validate data packets. The trust model is based on blockchain technology. The reliability of the trust anchor and the certificates that it issues are guaranteed through distributed consensus. At the same time, the hierarchical structure makes the content name highly expressive and provides a sufficient context for content verification. The trust model supports content based confidentiality. Content producers can encrypt content after producing it and assign corresponding decryption keys to authorized consumers. In this way, the confidentiality of the content does not depend on the intermediate device to ensure authentic end-to-end confidentiality, end-to-end confidentiality.
E. Cloud/Fog/Haze hierarchical framework
The traditional IoT service framework relies entirely on the computing storage capacity provided by the cloud. With the increase of IoT devices, this frame work faces challenges in terms of latency, bandwidth, and device energy consumption. At the same time, more and more network devices still have idle computing and storage resources besides satisfying their own functions.
Therefore, we propose a Cloud/Fog/Haze hierarchical framework for the IoT. The Cloud consists of computer clusters with supercomputing and storage capabilities, providing IoT network with big data analysis and data persistence storage service. The Fog consists of network devices that have better computing and storage performance, such as IEN-Router and IENCore Router. The Fog is closer to users and provides a more low-latency and intelligent services. The Haze, which is the closest part of framework to users, consists of network devices with relatively poor performance such as IEN-Hub.
The Cloud/Fog/Haze hierarchical framework is more sensitive to users behavior than the traditional IoT service framework, providing smarter and lower latency services. Besides, the cloud/ fog/haze frame work effectively improves the resource utilization of network devices. By employing this kind of framework, the centralized management and charging model of resources is transformed into a sharing model, forming a new network model and ecology.